Radio Halifax ckdu Voice of Eritrea Naz Yemane programme 2016-09-25 Ethiopia politics – impact on Eritrea
1.ፖሎቲካዊን ማሕበራዊን ኣምር ሓርበኛነት፡-
ኩሉ ሳዕ ኣብ ሓደ እኩብ ህዝቢን መሬትን (መሬትን ህዝቢ ዓዲ ኣቦ ወይ ኣደ) ንምክልኻል ዝዉፈ፡ ዘፍቕርን ንህዝቢ ተማእዚዙ ዘገልግል ሰብ፡ ኣብ ኩሉ ፖሎቲካዊ ምጣኔ-ሃብታዊ ማሕበራዊን ባህላዊን ኣቛዉማ (ስርርዓት) ህልዉ እኳ እንተነበረን ዘሎን፡ ሓርበኛነት (Patriotism) ብጉኑን መልክዑ ፖሎቲካዊን ማሕበራዊን ክብደታትን ትርጉምን እንዳሓዘ ዝመጸ ግን ድሕሪ 1648 ምስ ምፍጣር ሪፖፕሊክ ኣብ ዓለምና እዩ።
እምባሮጦርያዊ-ስልጣኔታት (an empire) ድሕሪ ዋዕላ ዌስቲ-ፎልያ ዓንየን ምፍጣር ሪፖፕሊክ ክዉን ምስ ኮነ፡ እቲ ልዕላዉነት መሬትን ህዝቢን ንሱ ዝሳሰዮን ዝፈጠሮን ስምዒታት ንሃገራዉነት እንዳዓበያ ስለዝመጸ፡ ኣብ 18 ክፍለዘመን ደቂ ሰባት መሬተይ ህዝበይ (ናተይ) ዝብል ስምዒታት እንዳዓበየ መጸ። እዚ ክዉንነት እዚ ድማ ንሃገራዉነት ብግቡእ ኣብ ዝላዓለ ጥርዙ ከምዝበጽሕ ገበሮ። ብመሰረቱ ሃገርነት ፖሎቲካዊ ስነ-ሓሳብ’ዩ። ከም ሰነ-ሓሳብ፣ ሰባት ምስ ሃገር ዘለዎም ጥቡቕ ዝምድናን ምትእስሳርን ከመልክት እንከሎ፣ ንሃገራዊ መንነቶምን መለለይኦምን ክኣ ይውስን። ሃገርነት ቀንዲ ምንጪ ሓባራዊ መንነት ካብ ኮነ፣ ብሓርበኛዊ ተግባራትን ጠባያትን ይትኣሳሰርን ብሓባራዊ ሓርበኛዊ ሃገራዊ ክብርታት ድማ ዝራጋገጽ እዩ።
ሓርበኛነት ስነሓሳብ፡ ፍልስፍና ሃይማኖት ዋህም (myth) ኣይኮነን፡ እንታይድኣ ሓደ ዜጋ ናይ ሓደ ሃገር ኣብ ልዕሊ እንታዉነቱ ወይ መሬቱን ህዝቡ (ዓዲ ኣቦ ወይ ኣደ) ዘጥርዮ ፍሉይ ስነኣእሙራዊ ተንካፊ ስምዒታዊ ፍቕሪ ን ኩርዓትን ኮይኑ፡ ካብዚ ዝነቀለ ናይ ክትዉፈየላ፡ ክትካላኸለላ፡ ክትሕበነላ፡ ክትኮርዓላ፡ ክትስዉኣላን፡ ከተማዕብሎ፡…ወ.ዘ.ተ ናይ ምድላይን ምግባርን ጂግንነታዊ ፍጻሜ እዩ። ኣብ መስርሕ’ዚ ጂግንነታዊ ፍጻሜ እዚ መስዋእቲ፡ ስንክልናን ሽምግልና የጋጥም’ዩ። ንኩሉ እቲ ዝተፈላለየ ተረኽቦታት ብተናጸል ስዉእ፡ ናይ ሓርነት ስንኩልን ህልዉን እኳ ቢልና ንገልጾም እንተኾና ንኹሎም ጠሚሩ ንተግባራቶም ዝገልጽ ኣምር ሓርበኛነት እዩ። ካብ’ዚ ኣቀዲመ ዝጣሕመስክዎ ደረት ሓሊፉ፡ እቲ ሓርበኛነት ናብ ዝላዓለ ጥርዙ ዓሪጉ፡ ብ ሕሉፍ ሃገራዉነት እንተተዓንዚሩ፡ ካብ ሓርበኛነት ሓሊፉ ንሉዑል-ትምክሕታዉነት(chauvinism) ናይ ምቕያር ተኽእሎ ስለዘለዎ፡ ኣብ ክንዲ ሓርበኛነት፡ ሉዑል-ትምክሕታዉነት ተባሂሉ ይግለጽ። ከም ሓደ ፍላስፋ ቮልቴር ዝብሃል ዝመሰሎ “ሓርበኛነት ሕዋስ ነፍሰ ፍቕርን ቅድመ ፍርድን ስለዝኾነ” ደቂ ሰባት ካብ ሓደ ሉዑል-ትምክሕታዉነት ዝንባሌ ክጥንቀቑ ጉቡእ እዩ።
ምትእስሳር ሰብን መሬትን፡ ሃገርነትን መንነትን፡ ሃገርነትን ሓርበኛነትን፡ ብርቱዕ ምትእስሳራትን ፍልልያትን ስለዘለዎ ንደቂ ሰባት ናሳዕ ካይፈለጡ፡ ኣብ ከቢድ ሕልኽልኽን ዝምቡዕ ምርዳእን የሳጥሖም እሞ ሃገራዉያን ወይ ድማ ሓርበኛታት ኢና ብምባል ዓስቢ ሃገራዉነቶሙን ሓርበኛነቶምን ብኢደ ወኒኖም ሕጊን ሕብረተሰብን ጥሒሶም ርሒብ ናይ ስልጣን ሽዉሃቶም ከራጋግጹ ስለዝህቕኑ ንሉዕል-ትምክሕታዉነት ብምእታዉ ኣብ ክንዲ ሕጋዉነት (legitimacy) ዘለዎም ሰባት ዝኾኑ፡ ንኣርካናት-ኪናት (war-lords) ይቕየሩ። ብኣርካናት-ኪናት ዝምርሓ ሃገራት ገሊኤን ዝተማረኻ ሃገራት፡ ገሊኤን ዝፈሸላ ሃገራት፡ ገሊኤን ናይ መልኣከ-ሞት ሃገራት፡ ገሊኤን ደም ዋሕዲ ዘጥቕዓን ሃገራትን ናይ ሕንፍሽፍሽ ሃገራት ከም እኒ (ሶማልያ፡ ኣፍጋኒስታን፡ ሱርያ፡ ዒራቕ፡ ኤርትራ፡ ደቡብ ሱዳን፡ ስራልዮን፡ ሃይቲ፡ ኮንጎ…ወ.ዘ.ተ ይኾና። ኣብ ከምዚ ክዉንነታት ዝወደቃ ሃገራት መን’ዩ ሃገራዊ? መን’ዩ ሓርበኛ? መን’ዩ ስዉእ? እንታይ’ዩ ሃገራዉነት? እንታይ’ዩ ልዕላዉነት? እንታይ’ዩ ሓርበኛነት? እንታይ’ዩ ድሕነት-ሃገርን ህዝብን? …ወ.ዘ.ት ዝብሉ ሕቶታት ይላዓሉ እሞ ናብ ትርጉም ዘይብሎም ኣምራት ተቀይሮም ሩጉጽ መልስታት ዘይብሎም ይኾኑ።
2.ኤርትራዊ ሓርበኛነትን ሃለዋቱን፡-
ርጉጽ’ዩ ኣብ’ዚ ናይ ሎሚ ሓጺር ዓንቀጸይ ንኤርትራዊ ሓርበኛነት ኣመልኪተ ዝጽሕፎ ዘለኹ፡ ብምልኣትን ብዝርዝርን ንምግላጹ ብቀሊል ዘይክኣል እዩ። ካብ መድረኽ ንመድረኽ ካብ ወለዶ ንወለዶ ዝታኻኽኡ ኣዝዮም ዓበይትን ወሰንትን ሓርበኛነታዊ ቃልስታት እብ ኤርትራ ከም ዝተኻየዱ፡ ታሪኻዊ ሓቅታት ብኣፈ-ታሪክ፡ ብጹሑፍን ብቅርሳ-ቅርሲታት (Archaeology) ክራጋገጽ ዝኽእል እዩ። ነዚ ሕጂ ከም ሃገርን ህዝብን ህላዌና ኣራጋጊጹ ብዝልዓለ ደረጃ ንምህናጽ ሃገርን ሃገርነት (Nationhood)፡ ንምህናጽ ሃገራዊ መንነት፡ ንምርግጋጽ ጊዝኣተ ሕጊን ሰላምን ቅሳነትን፡ …ወ.ዘ.ተ ዝሳላሰል ዘሎ ማሕበራዊ ሰዉራ፡ መቐጸልታ ናይ ቀዳሞት ሓርበኛታት ኣቦታት ኤርትራ ከም ዝኾነ ድማ ክንግንዘብ ኣሎና። ብኡ መሰረት ድማ ኤርትራዊ ሓርበኛነት ንምጥሕማሱ ኣብ ሓሙሽተ ገጻትን መድረኻትን ከፊልና ክንርእዮ ንኽእል ኢና፡-
- ቅድሚ 1860 ዝነበረ ኩነታት እዚ ሎሚ ብኤርትራ ዝፍለጥ ዘሎ ብምድረ-ባሕሪ ዝስመየሉ ኣብዝነበረሉ እዋናት፡ ምድረባሕሪ ብሽማግሌታት፡ ደግለታት፡ ናይባት፡ ምስሌነታት ፡ ሱልጣናት፡ ካህናት፡ መሻይኻት………ወ.ዘ.ተ ብከባቢታት ተማቃቂላ ትማሓደር ከምዝነበረት ይፍለጥ። ዋላ’ኳ ኣብ ሕሉፍ ታሪኽና ብተዛማዲ መዕቀኒን ኣጣማምታ ነንሕድሕድና ክጥርንፈናን ከተኣሳስረናን ብሰላም ከንብረናን ዘኽእል ኮማዊን ከባብያዉን ማይቤታዉን ኣብ ሕጊ እንዳባ ዝተመስረተ ፍትሓዊ ስርርዕን ርክክብን እነዘዉትር እንተነበርና፡ ነዚ ኣባታዊ ማሕበረ ምጣኔ ሃብታዊ ስርርዕ ንምብታኹን ንምቕያሩን ህዝብና ቡዙሕ ኣብ ዉሽጡን ኣንጻር ከፊላዊ ወረራ ቱርኪይ፡ ግብጺን መሳፍንቲ ትግራይን ሓርበኛታት ኣቦታት ንህዝቦምን መሬቶምን ንምክልኻልን ናጻ ንምዉጻእ ከቢድ ዋጋታት ዝኸፈሉ ሓርበኛታት ኣቦዋት ነይሮም እዮም። ኮይኑ ግን ቀጻሊ ካብ ድሕሪን ቅድሚን 1861-1942 ምፍጣር ኤርትራን ከም ዘመናዊት ሃገር ብመግዛእቲ ጥልያን፡ ኣብዚ መድረኽ እዚ ቀጻሊ ወራራት ካብ መሳፍንቲ ትግራይ ብመንጸሩ ድማ መግዛእቲ ጥልያን ንኤርትራ ከም ጉልቲ-ግዝእቲ ሃገር ዘቆመሉ እዋናት ኮይኑ፡ ኣዝዩ ቡዙሕ ቃልስታት ብኤርትራዉያን ኣንጻር ጥልያን ተኻይዱ እዩ። ካብቶም ቡዙሓት ዉሑዳት ሓርበኛነታ ከምኣብነት ክጥቀሱ ዝኽእሉ ፡- ራእሲ ወልደሚክኤል ሰለሙን፡ ሹም ኣቡበከር ናስርን ባህታ ሓጎስን፡ መሓመድ ኣሮዳ፡ ቦረምበራስ ካፍል ጎፋር፡ ዘማት ወዲ እኩድ፡ ሹም ዓሊ ኑሪ፡ ሱልጣን ያሲን ሓይሰማ፡ ዓሊ መሓመድ ዑስማን ቡሪ፡ ደግያት መንገሻ ኣስጎዶም፡ ደግያት ማሕራይ፡ ከንቲባይ ሓምድ ሓሰን፡ ከንቲባይ መሓመድ ሓምድ፡ ከንቲባ ሓየሎም ኣርዓዶም…ወ.ዘ.ተ ነይሮም።
- ካብ 1945-1956 ምሕራር ኤርትራ ካብ መግዛእቲ ጥልያን፡ ኣብ ትሕቲ ሞግዚትነት ዓባይ ቢሪጣንያ ምእታዉን ፈደረሽን ኤርትራ ምስ ኢትዮጵያ ኣብዝነበረሉ እዋናት ካብቶም ቡዙሓት ዉሑዳት ሓርበኛነታ ከምኣብነት ክጥቀሱ ዝኽእሉ ፡- ሸኽ ዓብዱልቓድር ከቢረ፡ ሸኽ ኢብራሂም ሱልጣን፡ ራሲ ተሰማ ኣስመሮም፡ ኣቶ ወልድኣብ ወልደማርያም…ወ.ዘ.ተ. ነይሮም።
- ካብ 1957-1991 ምፍራስ ፈደረሽን፡ ምጅማር ብረታዊ ቃልሲ ኣንጻር መግዛእቲን ምዕዋት ሰዉራ ኤርትራ ኣብ ልዕሊ መግዛእትን ምርግጋጽ ልዑላዊት ሃገር ኤርትራ ኮይኑ፡ ልዕሊ 100 ሽሕ ስዉኣት፡ ልዕሊ 30ሽሕ ስንኩላን ሃለዋቶም ብግቡእ ዘይተፈልጠ ን ዕድል ጌይሮም ካይተተንከፉ ዝድሓኑ ሓርበኛታት ስለዘለዉና ፡ኣብ መዛግብ ተ.ሓ.ኤን ህ.ግ.ሓ.ኤ ዳርጋ 90% ዝርዝር ሙዙጉባት ኣለዉ። ኣብ ጊዝየ ተጋድሎ ንሃገራዊ ናጽነት፡ ብስርዓት ሃይለስላሴን ደርግን ብመንጽሩ ድማ እቲ ዝነበረ መሪሕነት ዉድባት ዝንባሌታትን ቅጽል ስም እንዳኣጠመቀ ዝቀንጸሎምን ብቃጻ ዘጥፍኦም ኣሽማቶም ኣብ ዝኾነ መዝገብ ዘይርከብን ስድራቤታቶም ኩነታት ደቆም ዘይፈልጡ ሓርበኛታት እዉን ዘለዉና እዮም።
- ካብ 1993- 2016 ኣብ ዉሽጢ’ዚ ዝሓለፈ 25 ዓመታት ኤርትራ ካብ ባዕዳዊ-መግዛእቲ ተጋላጊላ፡ ሉዑላዊት ሃገር ካብትኾነሉ ንድሓር ዘሎ ጊዚያት፡ ገባቲ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ምስ ጎራባብቲ ሃገራት ዘካዮዶ ረጽማዊ ኩናትን ወፍሪ ዓበይቲ-ቀላያት እዉን እንተኾነ ቡዙሑን ብቀሊሉ ክፍለጥ ዘይክኣል ኤርትራዊ ሓርበኛ ኣብ ኪናትን ሰላምን ተቀቲሉ፡ ሰንኪሉ፡ ሃለዋቱ ጠፊኡ ተኣሲሩን ተሸሪቡን እዩ። ብልክዕ ኩነታቱን ንምዉሳንን ብኣሃዛዊ ጸብጻባ ንምፍላጡ ክሳብ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ኣብ ስልጣን ዘሎ ኣጸጋሚ ስለዝኸዉን ንመጻኢ ዝሕደግ ጉዳይ እዩ።
ናብ ከርሲ ጉዳይና ክንኣቱ ኤርትራዊ ሓርበኛነት ኣቀዲሙ ቅድሚ ኤርትራ ከም ዘመናዊት ሃገር ሙኻና ዝተጋህደ እኳ እንተኾነ፡ ብልዑል ፖሎቲካዊ መልክዓቱ ግን ምስ ኤርትራዉነት/ኤርትራዊ ሃገርነት ብዝላዓለ መልክዓቱ ዝተነጻበረቐ እዩ። ከም መጎት ኣብ ዝሓለፈ ታሪኽናን ዝመጽእ ወለዶታትናን ኤርትራዊ ሓርበኛነት ከምዝነበረን ክቅጽል ሙኻኑ ዘጣራጥር ኣይኮነን። የግዳስ ነቲ ንቡር ኤርትራዊ ሓርበኛነት፡ ብስንኪ ኣብ ኤርትራ ተመስሪቱ ዘሎ ኣብ ሕሉፍ ሃገራዊነት ስነ-ሓሳብ (ultranationalism) ዝተሰረተ ስርዓት ዝፈጠሮ ሉዑል-ትምክሕታዉነት ተዓብሊሉ ስለ ዘሎ፡ ንኤርትራዊ ሓርበኛነት ንጊዚኡ ብልክዕ ክንገልጾን ከነጻባሩቆን ኣጸጋሚ ክኸዉን እዩ። እቲ ምንታይስ :-
- ቅድሚን ድሕሪ ኤርትራ ካብ ሰራዊት መግዛእቲ ናጻ ምዉጽኣ መሪሕነት ህ.ግ.ሓ.ኤ ንኤርትራዊ ሃገራዉነትን ሓርበኛነትን ብእብረ ብዘይንሕስያ ስለዝሃረሞ።
- ኣብ ሓደ ጊዚየን ቦታን ሓርበኛነትን ሉዑል-ትምክሕታዉነት ይባራረ ብምህላዉ፡ ዕዘት ሓርበኛነት ኣብ ጽልግልግ ስለዝሽመም እዩ ።
- ዘንባዕን ፖሊሲታ ገባቲ ፖሎቲካዊ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ብክልስሓሳብን ተግባርን ጽምዶ ንጥፈታቱ ኣብ ንኤርትራዊ ሃገራዉነት፡ ሉዑላዉነትን ሓርበኛነትን ኣብ ምድኻምን ዝተጸምደ ብሙኻኑ እዩ።
- ብናይ ደገን ዉሽጣዊን ኣዛመዉቲ ሓይልታት ኤርትራዊ ሃገራዉነትን ሓርበኛነትን ኣብ ትሕቲ ፍጹም ጥቕዓት ስለዝርከብ ዘሎ እዩ።
- ዓዉላማ (globalization) ምጣኔ ሃብታዉን ፖሎቲካዊን ምሕደራ( world order) ዝፈጥሮ ፡ ንኣምር ስነሓሳብ ህዝብን ሃገርን ልዕላዉነት ጥሒሱ፣ ንሃገራዊ መንነትን ሓርበኛነትን ኣማህሚኑ፡ ዞናዊ፣ ስግረ-ዞናዊ፣ ዓለምለኻዊ ምጣኔ-ሃብታዊን ፖሎቲካዊን ወትሃደራዊ ምትእስሳር ዝፈጥሮ መዘና ዘይብሉ ጸቕጥታት ንሃገርነትን ሓርበኛነት ስለዘዳኹሞ ዘሎ እዩ።
ሀ. ኣብ ከምዚ ኣዝዩ ብደረጃ ዓለምለኻዊ “ዓዉሎማዉነት”፡
ለ. ብዞባዊ “ሉዑል-ትምክሕታዉነት ትግርኛ ክስበር ኣለዎ ዝብሉን ንኡኡ ዝናጣጠፉን”፡
ሐ. ብዉሽጢ ድማ “ገባቲ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍን ንኡኡ ዘገልግሉ ሓይልታት ብእብረን እስትንፋስ ብዘይህብ ብልሓት ንኤርትራዊ ናይ ዜጋታት ሃገራዉነት (Civic nationalism)፡ ሓርበኛነትን “ ኣብ ዝወቑዕሉ ዘለዉ ኩዉንነት፡ ብተናጸል ሓርበኛነት ኣልዒልካ ከተስርሮ ዝክኣል ኣይኮነን። እንታይድኣ ስሉሳዊ-ሕቶ ማለት ሕቶ ሃገራዉነት፡ ጊዝኣተ-ሕጊን ንቡሩነትን ክልዓል ኣለዎ። ነዘን ሰለስተ መሰረታዉያን ሕቶታት ብተግባር እንተመሊስና ኣብ ባይታ፡ ሕቶ ኤርትራዊ ሓርበኛነት ብግቡእ ክምለስ ሙኻኑ ክግመት ዝክኣል እዩ።
3.ህዝባዊን ሃገራዊ ብዓላት መን እዩ ዘጽድቖን ዝእዉጆን?
ኣብዚ እዋናት ወይ መድረኽ ነካይዶ ዘሎና ማሕበራዊ ሰዉራ፡ ቀንዲ ዕላማና ጊዝኣተ-ሕጊ ዘራጋገጸት ቅዋማዊት ሃገር፡ ሲቪላዊ መንግስትን ሲቪላዊ ሕብረተሰብ ንምርግጋጽ’ዩ። ቀንዲ ዕላማና እዚ ካብ ኮነ፡ ንሕና እዉን ከምቲ ፋሉል ሕጊ ኣልቦ ገባቲ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ንሃገርን ህዝቢ ብመዓልታዊ ኣዋጃትን መግለጺታት ዘማሓድራ ዘሎ፡ ከምኡ ክንከዉን ከምዘይብልና ብመትከል ክንቅቦሎ ዘሎና’ዩ። ኣብ ዝኾነ ሃገር ኣብዛ ንነብረላ ዘሎና ዓለም ህዝባዊን ሃገራዊ ብዓላት ሓደ ህዝቢን ሃገርን፡ ብፓርላማ (ሓጋጊ-ኣካል) ብህዝቢ ተወኪሉ ኣብ ስልጣን ዝመጸ ትካል፡ ከምዝዉሰንን ከምዝእወጂን ኩሉ ሰብ ዝፈልጦ’ዩ። መዓቀኒ ናይቲ ስልጣን ድማ ሓባራዊ ዕግበት (consensus) ሙኻኑ ክፍለጥ ኣለዎ። እዚ ኣድማሳዊ ሓቕታት እንዳተፈልጠ ከንሱ ብዝተፈላለየ ምኽንያታት ነቲ ኣድማሳዊ ሓቂን ንጹር መትከላትን ኣብ ዋጋ-ዕዳጋ ነእቱ እንተኼና፡ ካብ ኣፍራይነቱ ዕንወቱ ክዓዝዝ እዩ። “ናይ መጨረሽታ ጽዕነት ሳዕሪ ንዓንዲ ሕቆ ገመል ትሰብር” ከምዝብሃል ካብ የዋህነትን ሓልዮትን ነቂልካ ሳሕቲ ዝዉሰዱ ስጉምትታት ኣለዉ፡ እዞም ስጉምትታት እዚኣቶም እንዳተኣኻከቡ ምስ ከዱ ንሕቆ ህዝብን ዲሞክራሲን ዝሰብሩ እዮም። ልዕሊ ኹሉ ግን ሓደ ኣብ ሃገረይ ሕጊ የሎን! ጊዝኣተ-ሕጊ ንምርግጋዝ’የ ዝቃለስ! ፍትሒ ጎዲሊኒ ኣሎ! ዝብል ኣካል፡ ባዕሉ ሕጊ ክኸዉን እንተፈቲኑ፡ ብእብረ ነቲ ጥማር ዲሞክራስያዊ መትከላትን እንዳፍሮሶን እንዳባሕጎጎን ስለዝኸይድ፡ ኣብ ዝነዉሔ ጊዚየ፡ ኣብ ክንዲ ፈታሒ ጸገም፡ ባዕሉ ክፍታሕ ዘለዎ ጸገም ክኸዉን እዩ።
ንኸምዚ ኣቀድም ኣቢለ ዝጣሕመስክዎ ኩነት ሙኹኑይ ንምግባር፡-
- ገባቲ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ንኤርትራዊ ሃገርነትን ሓርበኛነትን እስትንፋስ ብዘይህብ መገዲ ይሃርሞ ስለዘሎ፡ ንኤርትራዊ ሓርበኛነት ኣመልኪቱ እዉን ህዝባዊን ሃገራዊን መዓልቲ ወይ ተዘክሮ ስለዘይገበረ፡ ኤርትራዊ ሓርበኛነት ማህሚኑ ካይተርፍ ከነባራቡሮ ኣሎና፡ ካብ ዝብል ንያትን ጽዕዶን ዝነቐለ፡ መዓልቲ ሓርበኛታት ክህሉ ኣለዎ ካብዚብል ኣታሓሳስባ ዝነቀለ ክኸዉን ይኽእል እዩ።
- ጊደን ተሳትፎን ሓርበኛታት ኣብ’ዚ ዝካየድ ዘሎ ማሕበራዊ-ሰዉራ ንምዕዛዝ ዝጠመተ ክኸዉን ይኽእል እዩ።
- ኣብ መላእ ዓለም ፋሕ ኢሎም ዘለዉ ሓርበኛታት ሃለዋቶም ንምፍላጥ፡ ንመሰላቶም ደዉ ክብሉ ንምዉዳቦም፡ ናይ መጻኢ ዕድላቶም ንምንጻር ዝሃቀነ ክኸዉን ይኽእል እዩ።
የግዳስ ኣቀዲምካ ብጊዚያዊ መዓልቲ ሓርበኛታት ምፍላሙ፡ ካሮሳ ኣብ ቅድሚ ፈረስ ምእሳር ኽኸዉን እዩ። እቲ ምንታይስ፡- ኤርትራዊ ሓርበኛነት ከም መቀጸልታ ናይ ነዊሕ ወለዶታት ዝተራእየ ተርእዮ ን፡ ቀንዲ መለለይ ጠባያት (character) ን ማእዶ ናይ ኤርትራዊ ሃገርነትን ኤርትራዊ መንነት ስለዝኾነ ብቀሊሉ ዝድምሰስን ዝርሳዕን ኣይኮነን። ስለዚ እቲ ክኸዉን ዘለዎ ጽምዶ ጓል መገዲን ሓደ ጎናዊ ጫሌዳ ሕቶ ኣልዒልካ ዘይኮነ፡ ብኣትኩሮ ነዚ ገባቲ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ኣብ ምእላይን መተካእትኡ ጊዝኣተ ሕጊ ምርግጋጽ ክኸዉን ኣለዎ። ኤርትራ ቅዋማዊትን ዲሞክራስያዊትን ሃገር ምስ ኮነት፡ ሕጋዊ ወይ ርትዓዊ መልክዕን ትሕዝቶን ስልጣን (legal or rational form of legitimacy) ስለዝራጋገጽ ፡ ንኩሎም ናይ ዜጋታት ሕቶታት ብግቡእ ዝምልስ ሓጋግ፡ ፈራዲ፡ ፈጻሚ ኣካላት መንግስቲ ንሕቶ ህዝባዊን ሃገራዊን ብዓላትን ተዝካራትን፡ ሕቶ ኤትኒክ፡ ሕቶ ባንዴራ፡ ሕቶ ቛንቛ፡ ሕቶ ዋንነት መሬት…ወ.ዘ.ተ ክምልስን ከራጋግጽን ሙኻኑ ዘጣራጥር ጉዳይ ኣይኮነን።
ስለዚ ኣብዚ እዋን’ዚ ንሓርበኛታት ኣመልኪቱ ክግበር ዝክኣል ቁምነገር ኣሎ፡ ንሱ ድማ ሓደ ርእሱ ዝኽኣለ ሲቪላዊ/ሲቪካዊ ማሕበር ሓርበኛታት ኣብ ዲያስፖራ ምቛም እዩ። እዚ ሲቪላዊ/ሲቪካዊ ማሕበር ሓርበኛታት’ዚ፡-
- ንኩሎም ሲቪልን ተጋደልትን ሓርበኛታት ኤርትራዊያን ፡ ዝነበርዎ ፖሎቲካዊ ዉድብ፡ ፖሎቲካዊ እምነቶሙን ፖሎቲካዊ ጸግዕነት ብዘየገድስ ብዘይ ገለ መሰናኽላትን ምጉናያት፡ ኣባላት እቲ ሓድሽ ዝምስረት ሲቪላዊ/ሲቪካዊ ማሕበር ሓርበኛታት ክኸኑ ኣርሒብካ ምቕባልን ምትብባዕን እዩ።
- ሲቪላዊ/ሲቪካዊ ማሕበር ሓርበኛታት ዘንቀሎን ዝወቕዖን ዕላማ ብምንጻር፡ ኣብ ዚካየድ ዘሎ ማሕበራዊ ሰዉራ ከም ኡግሚ ናይ ጸቕጢ ሓይሊን ፈልሲ ሲቪላዊ ሕብረተሰብ ኮይኑ፡ ኣዝዩ ንጡፍን ኣድማዒን ተራ ከምዝጻወት ዘኽእሎ ቅርጻን ሓሳብን ከምዝህልዎ ጌርካ ከምዝምስረት ምግባር እዩ።
- ነቶም ኣቀዲሞም ዝተመስረቱ ሲቪላዊ/ሲቪካዊ ማሕበር ሓርበኛታት ብስም “ተጋደልቲ ነበር ተ.ሓ.ኤን ህ.ግ.ሓ.ኤ” ኣብ ዘተን ጽምዶን ብምእታዉ፡ ነቲ ብፍላጥ ድዩ ብዘይፍላጥ መፈላለይ ተጠቂሞምሉ ዘለዎ መንደቕ ዉድባት ብምርዓምን ምዕጋብን ብመንሕራይ ኣፍሪሶም ኣብቲ ንኹሉ ሓርበኛ ዝጥርንፍ ሓዲሽ ሲቪላዊ/ሲቪካዊ ማሕበር ሓርበኛታት ክምዝተሓነፈጹ ወይ ድማ ኣይፋልናን እንተኢሎም ድማ ብትኹላዊ ወይ ጋድማዊ ዝምድናታትን ምትእስሳራትን (Solidarity) ፈጢርካ ብሓባር ትሰርሓሉ ህሞት ንምፍጣር ዘኽእለካ መርሓ-ገበይ (roadmap) ምሕንጻጽ እዩ።
- ኤርትራዊ ሃገራዉነት፡ ኤርትራዊ መንነትን ኤርትራዊ ሓርበኛነት ልዕሊ ፖሎቲካዊ ዉድብ፡ ኤትኒክ-ጉጂለ፡…ወ.ዘ.ተ ስለዝኾነ፡ ኣብ ከምዚ ዝናጣጠፉ ዜጋታት ቅንዕና፡ ጉሉጽነት፡ ተሓታትነት፡ ብቕዓት…ወ.ዘ.ተ ዘለዎም ዜጋታት ክኾኑ ይግባእ። ልዕሊ ኽሉ ድማ ርእሱ ዝኻኣለ ካብ ጽግዕተኛነት ፖሎቲካዊ ዉድባትን መንግስቲን ሓራ ዝኾነ ክኸዉን ኣለዎ።
- እቲ ዝቀዉም ሲቪላዊ/ሲቪካዊ ማሕበር ሓርበኛታት መጀመርታ በብሃገሩ ይቀዉም እሞ፡ ቀጺሉ ድማ ብደረጃ ዓለምለኻዊ ናብ ሓደ መጋባእያ ከምዝጋባእ ምግባር እዩ።
ስለዚ ኣብ ኤርትራ ሓርበኛነት ብሃናጺን ቁኑዑን መልክዕን ትሕዝቶን ክንጻባረቕ ኣለዎ።
Dr Tadios Tesfu – The silenced spring
Dedicated to my father, Frankfurt, 25th of July 2016
This Essay deals with the recent critical evaluation of the future of our youth
The all round talent Lebanese poet and philosopher Kahlil Gibran said on the children,
“Your children are not your children
They are the sons and daughters of life’s longing for itself
They come through you but not from you
And though they are with you yet they belong not to you
You may give them your love but not your thoughts
For they have their own thoughts
You may house their bodies but not their souls
For their souls dwell in the house of tomorrow
Which you can’t visit, not even in your dreams
You may strive to be like them
But seek not to make them like you
For life goes not backward nor tarries with yesterday”
The memories of my childhood are beautiful and innocent. How wonderful and caring were my parents to me, despite their poor level of education and meager material possessions.
When I was an infant I have been suffering from bronchitis that has accompanied me almost till the age of 12. Every third day my mother would carry me on her back and hurry to the local clinic in my village as if that was the first day to do so and my the last day of my life. My playmates would always burst out of laughing watching me at the age of seven carried by my mother on her back to bring me to the doctor’s. I could bet that I am one of these few children who were lucky enough to spend the most time of their childhood on the hand palms and under the shelter of their parents. Back then I was in need of constantly care and attention. To be brief: my parents’ love has saved my life, despite the harsh living and lack of good medications due to the prolonged civil wars, I must say our medical doctors and our parents were excellent practitioners and outstanding extemporizers, respectively. One day when I was almost 3 years old my health condition has deteriorated within minutes. Although we were living in an area with 45°C temperature in shadow, my body temperature seemed to be higher than the wind-chill factor around. My mother meant that she could facilitate the ironing of her laundry by the irradiated energy of my body. In her perplexity and hope to improve my critical condition, she started to give me overdoses of the anti-fever syrups from her coverage that has led indispensably to a short-term cessation of my cardioplegia. In rural areas of Eritrea such medical case could be roughly assumed as a death. My mother started seeking for help shouting out “Oh my God, my son, I am losing my son”. Thus our neighborhood was alerted and came to help her and they found me in an awkward situation. Hours later my father has arrived in delirious state from his Banana plantation. As time has passed our orthodox-church dignitaries took my parents out of our little African hut to perform the appropriate Coptic Orthodox Church death procession and have started wrapping me in a white shroud. Thanks to God at the very moment suddenly I started to move my little hands and legs and the procession has to be stopped. After a sign of life was observed and established, my parents were asked to stop crying and to return to our hut where the orthodox priest gave me his blessings and prayed that God may help me make something useful in my new life which could serve and improve the lives of my family and my society. My health started to recover very fast and days later I was playing with my friends again.
Well, here I am, I became a scientist, an Eritrean democratic activist, African jazz guitar artist and a black-belt martial artist the least to mention. But what were the inputs like devotion, inspiration and moral that my parents have given me throughout the years in order to function in life the way I do? As Albert Einstein said once we are all the results of the prejudices we have experienced until the age of 18. If this is certain, I want to narrate you some of the anecdotes that I believe have engraved my life. I hope that these might help us analyze and compare the different results or outputs of young Eritreans of a similar age with the different starting resources. One thing should be taken as given and that is I am a child of war and after all a refugee just as the nowadays youth.
We all know that usually children don’t like taking medication and they start screaming whenever their parents intended to give the one. This is the reason why chemists produce anti disease syrups for children that are mostly sweet and pink-colored. Therefore an individually creative art of persuasion of one’s parents is required to make their child pliable.
My father’s method was simple and sustainable. He was saying to me „My son Tadios, you are so courageous and clever so that you are going to close your eyes and swallow the medicine instantly. If you take this medicine now, tomorrow for sure you will be playing with your mates outside in the field between the Barattolo’s cotton plantations.” He would continue lecturing me, saying: “My son, this medicine is from Germany and the Germans produce the best medicine in the world. You know, I have given you the name Tadios of an apostle who has cultivated his arable land and collected his harvest in only one day”
Well, with such words of inspiration from my father, I grew up with a consciousness to be able to displace a mountain and the sky was the limit.
My father was very respectful and charismatic religious leader in his community. He loved to discuss on religious issues with his compatriots and especially with the Moslems in his vicinity. His maxim was inspiring and convincing the people to follow God’s way instead of obeying religious dogmatism and fanaticism by simply winning their hearts. His generosity towards poor people was amazing. Whenever people came to us seeking for solutions to their new problems, he used to reach them from the Holy Bible and used to tell them to read loudly the topic or article in simple way. Since then I grew up with the notion that the solution for all our problems is written in the Holy Bible. But to my regret I have never read that book.
One day when I was a PhD-student I came to our home reading a booklet” A brief history of time” written by Steven Hawking. My father was watching me carefully and he asked me: “My son you look very worried reading this book, what this book all about is?” I said, this book is written by one of the most renowned and handicapped scientist of our time and it is about the “Big Bang Theory”. He asked me” Bigge what?” He asked further, if I could explain to him what this white man was saying? I continued to explain this difficult stuff to a man who has never heard in his life the phrases of physics, such as black holes, thermodynamics, entropy, quantum gravity and singularity. God knows how I wished to be convincing with my explanation like always my father did, and I said “In 1970 Hawking proved mathematically using quantum mechanics by calculating the entropy (physical quantity for disorder) backwards in order to find the origin and nature of our universe. Professor Hawking believes that the whole world before Big Bang was at a state of singularity, this means it was a very tiny grain with a massive density and after the Big Bang the universe has started to expand and cool down at which our galaxies were created. The fact that our universe is still expanding was visualized by Edwin P. Hubble’s telescope in 1929.” While I was explaining this stuff my father, he was looking at me very serious and after I have finished explaining, he asked me by saying, “So you spent d the whole of your life learning this stuff in order to tell us that the creation of our world was not initiated by the all mighty God?” I said to him, “look father, firstly, these are the ideas in the book of professor Hawking, and by the way there are a lot of scientists around the world who disagree with his opinion.” After all, we scientists, we have not created the nature; we rather try to understand how nature functions. My father said, “yes it is okay trying to understand how nature functions but my son why don’t just read the Bible, everything is written there? The all mighty God is the only creator of the sky and earth,” my father has started to argue. I said “dad, the blue sky does not exist at all. The blue sky we see is the scattering of light on tiny molecules of water in the atmosphere for a simple fact that the short-waved blue color is more deflected than the long-waved red color of the spectrum which penetrate as light direct into our eyes. This fact was already verified by Sir Isaac Newton Prism-experiment in 1672. Therefore due to this physical phenomenon, we see blue skies on a clear sunny day and red skies on a beautiful sun set, when fog does not exist in the atmosphere.” Well my father started to argue further and he started asking me,” and who has created the blue and red colors and the water molecules, you have already mentioned, my son”. At that moment I was thinking about the laws of optics in physics, long-chained conjugated organic dyes and the Maxwell equations of electrodynamics but unable to explain to a person who has never dealt with this stuff. My father said to me, Tadios you know what, I am sure you have the answers for my questions, but as long as you are unable to explain them in very simple and convincing way to uneducated person as I am , you haven’t internalize your stuff and so that means that they are not part of your ideas. Days later I was reading a book that was a simplified version of the history of political theories which was written by a German professor of political science. The author has said that a politician has to think like a philosopher and speak like a farmer and if the case is a vice versa, his well-intentioned time-anticipated thoughts can’t inspire the people but rather damage them creating a state of an illusion.
After I have finished my PhD-thesis I was celebrating it with my family, my academic success for getting the highest degree in science and I told my parents that such a scientific degree have only ca. 1.4 % of German population. This fact catapulted me automatically from a rare species to the so-called “Bildungselite” which means one of the intelligentsia of the German society. My mother screamed Elelelelele and said to me “Oh yes my Son, this is fantastic” she spoke further and said now we should find for you a young girl with at least a master degree in science or economics. My father was shaking his head and said to my mom; “go away, you are confusing my son by telling him nonsense.” He asked my mother, “Do you want to make my son and his bride to be like Major-general and colonel of the army, respectively?” He said to me, “son, your mother doesn’t know anything about life and love, so don’t care much about what she is saying. He said “by the way son, do you have any girlfriend who you can marry soon? I said “no dad; I didn’t still find the right one.” My father asked me further and he said “okay, when do you think to find the right one?” I answered, “I hope soon or one day.” He asked me, “Are you going to wait for Ms Right all your life, if you don’t find her soon?” I asked him to answer his question while I was laughing; if he had better suggestions. He said at ones yes and he requested me to read the holy Bible on the paragraphs such and such. I said “no dad, I am exhausted now, and maybe dad, you can tell me yourself what I should do.” My father said to me “instead of waiting for Ms Right all your life, you have to make your own one”. He went further by saying, “Tadios you have the highest degree in science; just find a little beautiful girl and educate her, the way you want her to be. That was exactly what I have done with your mom,” he said, “Otherwise I am sure one day you are going to marry any woman and not because she is your Ms Right, but because you became older and you don’t have many opportunities.” Back then I was speechless regardless of my highest degree in science.
To narrate you another amazing story regarding my mother: when I was visiting the Eritrean refugees’ secondary school in Kassala Sudan (UNSCO-School Kassala) in the mid eighties of the last century, I had a dispute with my classmate girl called Nura who was sitting next to me on a long bench that we had to share with other five classmates. We were more than 60 students in a very hot and narrow classroom. In such overcrowded classroom of girls and boys at the age of 13 to 20 sitting on a long bench in a single line like hens’ barbecue, daily quarrels between the pupils were unavoidable due to impatience and negligence. The lectures were held in the afternoon where the temperature used to raise to over 40°C. The lectures were not functioning well so that the students couldn’t concentrate on the stuff they had to cover and the teachers were teaching mostly soliloquizing. As a showcase usually the teacher used to take some of the students who were disturbing the class and tried to punish them by dismissing them from his class. After the teacher of a particular subject left his class, usually the dismissed students were coming back to their classes and continued with another teacher and subject specified on the timetable. On that day my dear classmate and I became a subject of unprecedented disciplinary act: our teacher had taken us to our late honorable school director Ustaz Saleh Hamde. With a thoughts about the economical consequences that we might suffer if the director dismissed us from his school, my classmate and I started to shiver while we were walking behind our teacher in the corridor in the direction to our director’s room. Our fear was deep because of a simple fact that the grant we had from this school has been sufficient to pay our rent, clothes and much more for our families and us and without this grant life would be a hell. Ustaz Saleh ordered immediately to go to our homes and bring the next day our custodians. The sadness of this imprudent and irresponsible act was written on our faces and we felt sorry to each other what our families might do to us and the fact that many other poor young and much cleverer Eritrean students were exactly in the need and waiting to take our positions. Anyway that day I went back directly to my home and my mom was wondering and looking at me in a peculiar way when I came unusually earlier that day. She asked me what happened and why and wanted to know whether the girl was seriously injured. I said, “No mom I just have pushed her away from me because she has disturbed me while I was writing on the blackboard. Next day I went with my mom to the school and all the students gathered around my mom telling her I was not to blame. My mom made her way to the director’s office and I followed her very quickly. Nura and her uncle were also there. To my imagination the Nura’s uncle was a well educated man from the western part of Eritrea and was having a conversation in Tigre, Arabic and English languages with Ustaz Saleh. When my mom and I arrived there Ustaz Saleh forgot to greet and welcome us and as usual asked us to have a seat. My mom who was very simple but a sharp articulating house woman has felt insulted by the behavior of my director. She took two chairs for me and for herself and attracted the attention of the two gentlemen instantaneously by saying “Aslam-Wealekum”. I could see in their faces that they are not going to have an easy going business meeting with my mom. The director has said to my mom” woman, we ordered you to come here today; because your son has beaten this young lady”. My mom interrupted him by saying my son has told me a different story than yours and I rather believe my son than you. While the verbal fight between my mom and the two well educated persons were taking place myself and Nura were started to hide our laughter behind our palms and we were amused by the gallantry act of my mother protecting me from the allegations and attacks. Anyway after the hot discussion Ustaz Saleh ordered my mother to put her signature on the agreement. Although my mom couldn’t read and write and Ustaz Saleh has given my mom a stamp duty, she took a pen and started to write her signature on the paper. At that moment Ustaz Saleh and all others who were present in the room started to laugh at my mother. My mom has put her hands on her waist and with a cynical smile on her face asked us “do you think I am an easy woman?”
After we got back home from our school my mom said to me: “you know today you were really stupid boy and what kind of man you are that you punch a little girl in her chest. She asked me back then “where are all the virtues we have taught you since your childhood? You are an idiot and all what Ustaz Saleh said is true, because I know you bustard.” She said further that she simply protected me in front of my director not to humiliate me because my father was not there. After all she said that I have the best Eritrean teachers accumulated in this one and only place of knowledge and she continued saying it would be a blessing if I learn to speak many languages as that gentlemen we met that afternoon.
The day after, Nura and I have started to do a social work by cleaning our school and gathering the trash during the break, when the other children were playing and enjoying their break. Well, from that day on Nura and me started to have deep conversation on different subjects during our social work and we fell in love with each other and we become best friends till Nura left the school suddenly and went to Eritrea to join the struggle for independence and became a martyr.
These were some of the stories and anecdotes from my childhood and the parenting style my parents used to stir me by inspiring and encouraging me to be bold and to be good prepared with inexhaustible consciousness and knowledge for humanity in the world. My parents were acting as benevolent persons and they have tried to be my critical supporters regarding politeness, telling the truth, generosity and self-reliance by respecting my freedom to make my own decisions in life in order to pursue the way I have chosen in life. Their motto was “a stitch in time saves nine” and not indoctrination of their child with a dogmatic doctrine of ultra nationalism and religious fanaticism.
On the contrary, the nowadays Eritrean youth are the victims of the devastating vision of DIA and the greedy and abysmal ambitions of their families which are complimented by the act of cowardice and hypocrisy. Here questions over questions can be asked and we can write books of horror stories by telling the anecdotes about the youth. What are the driving force and inspiration of such young people who are fleeing from their beloved country to Europe and elsewhere and leaving behind them what they loved and appreciated in their life? What was the parental role in the life of these young people? What was and is the role of the regime in destroying their dreams, cultivating hatred and loss of national identities of these young people who are supposed to be our future and continuity as a nation? What are the perceptions and misconceptions of the opposition groups regarding the youth’s issue? What are the state of art and their expectations of the Diaspora?
Well as reported 74% of the population in Eritrea is born is born in independence; that’s after 1991. This is splendid for a country which is in the middle of a nation’s building process. Cheap and fresh man power, creative source of innovation in a quest for happiness and possibilities to improve one’s life can be driving factors that lead a country into a quantum leap of a national economy. But education is the key to life as ever before. It is important to have a youth with strong differentiated knowledge and volition to permanent learning in order to stay competitive in a world and time of globalization. But what remains in a country where the only one University of Asmara is closed and the country is full of military colleges with unmotivated teaching stuff and students who dream of fleeing out the country sooner than later. In a nation building process collaborations with other international universities and participating in professional training programs, international conferences and workshops could help the development of the young people. These can help to create a sustainable and competitive society in a world of globalization. This is crucial in cultivating our human resources as a main national asset. Well, the government doesn’t allow young Eritreans to travel anywhere out of the country. Because government needs to assure via the endless national services its cheap clueless, tamed and amenable taskforce for its war machinery. The government has made bad experience when in the mid-nineties in the last century many young educated people asked for asylum after they left Eritrea with a scholarship. Here the opposition groups have also partially played its role in encouraging and assisted these students or upcoming teacher to seek for asylum in order to weaken the regime in Eritrea. The education system and its impact in Eritrea begin from the times of the revolution till now. It is depicted and discussed in the PhD-thesis of Dr Mussie Habte who is nowadays a parliamentary adviser of education in Germany. How and why an impoverished nation which has made promising strides in medicine began to fail after the government has clamped down on its foreign partnerships as discussed on Nature.com “The science in the developing world: Eritrea’s shattered science”.
Nevertheless, we know that many children of the high rank officials of the regime are getting education outside the country. Beside this the regime in Eritrea invests a lot of USD to cultivate and indoctrinate the Diaspora Young-PFDJ members, while wasting and abandoning the young people in Eritrea as cannon fodder. Though, it is very recommendable to assist and pursue our young new refugees to get higher education in western countries in case one day the country becomes free of the totalitarian regime and we do not have to start from the nil. It is a crime to dissipate such future Eritrean intellectual potential by letting them work in hotel rooms as cleaning stuff and paupers of the western countries.
In the foreign media the most reasons reported why these young people in the age between 5 to 40 years flee the country is in fact the endless national service which is called by its real name as a national slavery. But what these guys don’t understand is how unbearable the pressure imposed by the families and friends on these young people can be, if they stay quite inactive in Eritrea and they could be regarded as losers when they don’t take a risk and leave the country to improve the life of their families sacrificing their own lives. This is a remnant of a cultural adaptation of the old patriarchal society in which the man is the supplier of his families. The father of psychoanalytic Sigmund Freud has stated “human beings desire what they see every day” so I believe besides the national slavery stuff, the tremendous cultural pressure on these young guys might force them to leave the country and take all that risk in order to come to Europe. It is an attractive idea and feeling to leave the hell and come to a paradise where all their old problems vanish at ones. But what if the supposed destination is not paradise but as stated by many young Eritrean a camouflaged hell? And what if one’s old problems are solved but the solutions of his new problems are out of his hands? What if one’s older problems were much easier to fight back than the new ones; due to the lack of adequate tools or vitamin B to handle the cultural clashes without exact having of a social awareness of your new homeland? These will be the cases if one thinks all western countries are democratic as they seem and its citizens are equally treated by neglecting the power of the unwritten law and lobbies that prevail in the industrial societies.
We all know that knowledge is the passport to the future and the key solution for our many problems. But what if knowledge becomes a problem by itself? Does this disapprove the philosophical content of the critique of pure reason published by Immanuel Kant in 1789, from where many of the European legislation relay on?
It is certain, there is a demographic change in the western society which might let one believe the future of our youth regarding getting employment is guaranteed. On the other hand the unemployment of the young and educated members of this European society is increasing and higher than ever before. In some European countries the number of young job seeker is more than 50%. Parallel to this unhappy situation, in the near future the robotic technology will be even more sophisticated so that many parts of industrial and public workload which still could be done by human labour will be done by the machines. In the field of robotic nursing of old people, drivers in public transportation will be substituted by autopilots. In the future cars will go from one place to other without any human intervention. In the bank the service at the counter is and will be reduced to the minimum so that finally the bank director and his secretary will remain alone. In the civil construction field instead of a human an assembly robots will play major roll. In the field of medicine doctors of conservative surgery and even your family doctor will be replaced by intelligent robots that will measure your blood pressure and other chemical and physical measureable value of your body in order to tell you the state of your health in the morning, although you don’t feel ill. The warfare and military logistics is changed if we refer to the latest development and war conduct using drones in fighting against terrorism. The soldiers at the battle fields will be replaced by machines. This is not a scenario from the terminator or predator movies but a reality and state of the research at the universities such as MIT which started with a research program called “the Nano-soldier” funded by millions of dollars early in the nineties of the last century in order to develop strategic materials and equipment for soldiers using nanomaterials and nanotechnologies. All this clarify that the work opportunities and assignments for young refugees are not amazing in the western world but the consequence could be devastating as I will discuss below.
In 1991 J.W. Berry discussing on the acculturation and adaptation in new society, in 1977 R. Taft discussing on the coping with unfamiliar cultures and in 2011 the sociologist Nkechi Madubuko discussing on stress of immigrants based in acculturation have indicated that a new cultural adaptation stress can lead to the feelings of inferiority and alienation. According to them this situation might lead to depression and increasing susceptibility of psychosomatic reactions. Madubuko has found in her research that scholars of colored people in Germany are exposed to strong stress in consequence of acculturation due to confrontation with stereotypes and prejudices. Thus they mostly react with certain behavioral pattern. It is usual that the black scholars have to perform in the area of their expertise much more than the natives in order to experience the same social recognition. Madubuko manifested in her research a relationship between the experience of acculturation and the resulting stress that is also influenced by the migration policy of the host country and the structure of its society. To my mind since the mid eighties the numbers of colored people are increasing constantly in Europe. Despite the great deal of economical and cultural contribution of these former immigrants and nowadays citizens of the European countries, they have not yet arrived in the middle of the European society. The colored people are regarded as citizens only on the paper as long as the Europeans demand assimilation without acceptance of these people as a part of their society. This fact can be easily shown for example by comparing the percentage numbers of the achieved degree of education and their occupation of different highly positions in German society. Namely, nowadays the number we get from educational statistics is that the Bio-Germans that means of European ancestry and German citizens with immigration background have 10% and 12% with university degree, respectively. If we compare their positions for the time being, then 99% are occupied by Bio-Germans and about 1% with German citizens of the immigration backgrounds. This number could be much higher if we do not neglect the other young south European job seekers and workers who come to Germany during and after the world financial crash of 2008.
To improve the work opportunity and unhappy situation for immigrants in Germany on 3rd of June 2014 I wrote an open letter to the government of Germany requesting the launching of an affirmative action for German coloured people and if it is necessary to debate my stand with the members of the assembly in the Bundestag. The answer I have received from the Bundeskanzleramt in Berlin was weak and floppy.
Well, I want be clear how grateful I am regarding the generosity and limitless access to high education I have been enjoyed in Germany regardless of the cultural challenges and discomforts I have experienced and still I am experiencing within the German society. I will discuss this issue on a great deal in other publications. My personal experience might be very important to be presented and discussed in accordance to the conclusion of the bestseller author and philosopher Richard David Precht who stated that the equality of opportunities for education in Germany has not been given. He believes that the access to higher education is social class dependent and does not come from ones’ efforts. His conclusion is worrying if we observe that 75% of the new young immigrants in Germany are leaving the school or apprenticeship without a certificate (no graduation).
Nowadays the German society is polarized than ever before. After the summer of 2015 where the number of asylum seekers has towered above 1 million in Germany and the estimated accommodation and the living costs averaged more than 40 Billion Euros only for the last year; the German society has started to rebel against its own government. Although the amazing welcoming culture initiated by the federal chancellor Angela Merkel “Wir schaffen es” and more than 13 million Germans were involved in helping to integrate the new refugees, this unprecedented situation was for many right-wing oriented German nationalists indigestible. In the winter of 2015 there were about 1300 fire attacks on refugee camps and many criminal assaults on refugee by Neo-Nazis as it was stated by many antiracism foundations in Germany. A renowned German government adviser and director of the institute of economical research in Germany Prof Dr Dr Hans-Werner Sinn has said that although the young aged refugees with the age between 18 and 30 could be the blessing for Germany regarding the devastating demographical changes. These people could pay the pension in the upcoming 15 years for the aging German population that was born in the baby boom period in the mid fifties to mid sixties of the last century in Germany. Further he argues that economically the estimated educational costs will be ca. 400,000 Euro for each of these one million new refugees of which almost many of them have the level of Pisa-I education grade, which means they are illiterate persons who are unable to read and write and solve simple arithmetic. He said that making such a big investment on education of these refugees will not pay off at the end of the day. He states that in order to achieve the education level which is useful in Germany, these people have to pass about 15 years of education which might cost the German taxpayers more the 140 Billion Euros. He believes that many of these people will have to compete for lower paid jobs with other native uneducated Germans. He guesses that this might be good for the capitalists that want to underpay pay their employees but not for many Germans of the same class who relay on the so called “Mindestlohn” which is minimum wage. These people could decrease the German minimum wages and cause an agitation which could result in social clashes. He also said that for 25 years in Germany the wages of the workers has not increased and the industrial productivity has decreased due to the high inflation.
Nowadays many young Eritrean refugees are coming to western countries seeking for a shelter and security from war and starvation. The western countries were not meant to be and shall not mean to be our permanent but rather temporary places to save our souls from atrocities of the war. Peoples’ contentment and coexistence in a world of globalization are always dependent on the political and economical situation of one’s country of origin. So wherever we are and whatever we achieved; it is vital to roll up our sleeves and fight for improvement of the desolating situation in our country and get back to our roots even if it will take us many years which are comparable to the Exodus of Jewish people.
Thank you so much for reading this essay and I am looking forward for your critical comments and questions via Dr.TadiosTesfu@gmx.de