Monthly Archives: November, 2014

Authoritarian breakdown — how dictators fall | Dr. Natasha Ezrow | TEDxUniversityofEssex


COMMISSARIO STRAORDINARIO DEL GOVERNO PER LE PERSONE SCOMPARSE (ፍሉይ መንግስታዊ ኮሚሽን ንዝተሰውሩ ሰባት ፡ ሐበሬታ ንስድራ ቤትን አዝማድን)

The High Commissioner for Missing Persons notifies that, in order to aid and promote the identification of the corpses of foreign citizens recovered from sea after the shipwrecks of October 3rd and 11th 2013, the relatives of possible victims are invited to collect the following documentation and ante mortem material concerning such victims:
1) ID card, identity papers containing a photo of the missing person, physical characteristics and markers (for example, hair colour, scars, tattoos, etc.)
2) Any photo and image, both printed, digital or on videotape, DVD-ROM, etc., of the missing person. Among this material, the photos of the face representing a person while smiling (where teeth are visible) and/or where the profile, scars, tattoos, moles etc. can be detected are particularly useful
3) Any kind of clinical and dental record (for example, medical records, clinical photos, work certifications, estimates for clinical procedures, X-ray examinations, CD-ROMs containing radiological analyses, etc.) ;
4) Any clinical information or record in general (for example, of surgery, disease, handicap, etc.);
5) Personal belongings of the missing person, for example toothbrush, combs, etc.
The relatives, preferably in the direct line (father, mother, sons and daughters), will be invited according to a specific timetable to come to a predetermined venue, with the above mentioned records, for an interview with specialized personnel and an assisted consultation of post mortem data gathered by the Police’s Forensic Science Service, as well as possible genetic sampling. If the relatives or their representatives cannot speak Italian, English or French, they will be assisted by interpreters and cultural mediators.

ፍሉይ መንግስታዊ ኮሚሽን ንዝተሰውሩ ሰባት ፡ ሐበሬታ ንስድራ ቤትን አዝማድን

ምልክታ ንሐልዮ ዝተሰወሩ ሰባት ዝቆመ ላዕላዋይ ኮሚሽነር ናይቶም ብ2013 ወርሒ ጥቅምቲ ዕለት 3 ዓሰርተ ሐደን አብ ባሕሪ ዝሰጠሙ ሰባት አስከሬናት ማንነት ንምልልያን ንምፍላጥን ድራ ቤቶምን አዝማዶምን ናይቶ ግዳያት ሰነዳት ከቅርቡ ይምሕጸን ።
እዞም ዝስዕቡ ሰነዳት ቅዳያት ቅድሚ ምስዋሮም ዝነበሮም ሰነዳት ፣
1.ናይቶም ዝተሰወሩ ስእሊ ዘለዎ መንነት ወረቀት ንአብነት ጸግሪ ርእሶም ሕብሮም በሰላ ወይ ክአ አብ አካሎም ውቃጦ እንተለዎም ነቲ ኮሚሽን ክቀርብ ይኽእል።
2. ናይቶም ዝተሰወሩ ሰባት ዝኾነ ይኹን ስእሊ ብስእሊ ብቪደዮ ብዲጂታል ዲቪዲ ሮም ወዘተርፈ …. ክቀርብ ይኽእል እዚ ክልለዩ ይሕግዝ ። ካብቶም ንመለለዪ ዝሕግዙ ሰነዳት ናቶም ዝተሰወሩ ሰባት ክምስ ክብሉ ከለዉ አስናኖን ብዝግባእ ዘርእዩ ወይ ክአ ውቃጦ በሰላ ወይ ክአ ብሮት ዘርእዩ ስእልታት አዝዮም ጠቀምቲ ኢዮም።
3. ካልእ ንአብነት ንሕክምና ዝተሰአልዎ ክሊኒካዊ ስእሊ ናይ ስራሕ ባጀላ ንኤክስ ረይ ዝተሳእልዎ ምልክቶም ዝእምት ዝኾነ ይኹን ነገር ሲዲ ሮምስ ውስጣዊ አካላት ንምምርማር ስተሳእልዎ ራጂ እንተሎ ዝተሰወሩ ሰባት ክልለዩ ይሕግዝ ።
4. ዝኾነ ይኹን ቅድሚ ምስዋሮም አብ ልዕሊኦም ዝተኻየደ ክሊኒካዊ መጽንዕቲ እንተሎ ወይ መጥባሕቲ እንተተጌሩሎም ሰነድ እንተልዩ ሐጋዚ ኢዩ።
5. ናይቶም ዝተሰወሩ ሰባት ንብረት ከም መዘርገፍ መጽረዪ ስኒ ዝትንክፍዎ ዝነብሩ አቅሐ ክምርመር ይክአል ይብል እዚ ንዝተሰወሩ
ሰባት ዝቆመ መንግስታዊ ኮሚሽን። ዝበለጸ ክአ ናይቶም ዝተሰወሩ ሰባት ወለዲ ወይ ደቆም ብዝበለጸ መራሒ ሐበሬታ ከቅርቡ ስለ ዝኽእሉ ንሳቶም ክቀርቡ ይምረጽ ።
ነዝዞም አብ ላዕሊ ዝተጠቅሱ ሰነዳት ሒዞም ክቀርቡ ዕድል ዘለዎም ስድራ ቤት አብ ዝተወሰነ ግዜን ቦታን ክዕደሙ ይክእሉ ምስአቶም ክአ ቃለ መሕትት ክካየድ ከም ዝኽእል ክአ የገንዝብ።
እቶም ስድራ ቤት ብኽኢላታት ድሕረ ሞትን ብሥነ ፍልጥታዊ አገባብ ሐበሬታ አኪቦም ዘጽንዑን ሰባት ከም ዝሕገዙን ንሳቶም አብ ዘለውሉ ንቃለ መሕትት ከም ዝቀርቡ ክአ የፍልጥ ።
ስድራ ቤት ወይ ክአ አዝማድ ናይዞም ዝተሰወሩ ሰባት ናይ ቋንቃ ሽግር እንተልይዎም ቋንቋ ጣልያን እንግልዚ ወይ ክአ ፈረንሳ ዘይዛረቡ እንተኾይኖም ተርጐምቲን ባህላዊ ሽማግለታታን ክሰናደውሎም ከም ዝኾኑ ክአ እቲ ፍሉይ ንሐልዮ ዝተሰወሩ ሰባት ዝቆመ መንግስታዊ ኮሚስዮን ቃል ይአቱ።

Is bunker housing for asylum seekers at tipping point?

After fleeing repressive regimes and risking their lives to get to Switzerland, the last place asylum seekers imagine ending up is an underground nuclear bunker. It’s an increasingly common, drastic step taken by overburdened cantons

EPDP Recording of EFND DC Conference, 23-25 October 2014

ናይ ሕመቕ ጹቡቕ ኣብነት!

South Boulder Mines

Potash for produce

Article | 5 November, 2014 – 12:24

There’s no arguing with the fundamentals. Growing populations, reduction in arable land, changing dietary preferences, climate change and the escalating demands of emerging economies have placed food security at the top of the political as well as the economic agenda. World population is growing by some 75 million every year. By 2050 almost 9.3 billion people are expected to inhabit the earth. Food production will have to increase by almost 50 percent to feed them, and this means a huge global demand for fertilisers, already forecast to reach 190 million tonnes by 2016.

The market for potassium fertilisers, or potash, is currently around 60 million tonnes. Demand is forecast to grow at approaching five percent per annum, much faster than nitrogen and phosphorus based fertilisers. It was this fact that attracted the attention of South Boulder Mines’ founder and Australian entrepreneur Liam Cornelius. The ASX listed company he founded in 2003 had gold and nickel exploration interests, and in 2007 it acquired some tenements in the Pilbara region of Western Australia to gain an initial foothold in the potash market. Its focus on potash, however, was sharpened in 2009 when, following careful research into the characteristics of the Danakil Depression that straddles Ethiopia and Eritrea, it was granted exploration tenements for the Colluli concession in southern Eritrea.

Colluli is an extensive, 400 square kilometre resource. Drilling that started in 2010 has established that it contains more than a billion tonnes of potassium bearing salts. Subsequent to this, the company set about disposing of its other assets, spinning out the gold and nickel tenements into a separate company, Duketon Mining, and putting all its efforts into developing Colluli. South Boulder’s present CEO Paul Donaldson, a vastly experienced mining professional with more than 20 years’ experience at BHP Billiton, who had joined as Chief Operating Officer, had been attracted by the market potential for potash and the ideal location of Colluli to supply the product to key markets in Australasia, India and southern Europe as well as the sheer size of the resource, “The Colluli resource is the shallowest known potash deposit in the world: mineralisation starts at 16 metres and it runs down to about 140 metres so it is perfect for open cut mining which is much cheaper than developing an underground mine. Open cut mining also gives very high resource recovery relative to underground and solution mining methods used for potash mining.”

However he felt the original plan did not take full advantage of the way the deposit is composed. “The strategy had been to build a flotation circuit, bring the top level sylvinite into production of potassium chloride and then deal with the ancillary polysulphate, carnallite and kainite resources at a later point,” he explains. “The problem with that approach was that top salt is only 16 percent of the resource. With a resource covering such a big land area, you could end up with very high mining costs. So the economics of the project did not look as attractive when potash prices declined back in early 2013.” At this point the company went through a restructuring from which Donaldson emerged as CEO from his Chief Operating Officer position, embarking on a new development path that involved full resource utilisation and at the same time shifting the production focus from potassium chloride to potassium sulphate.

Though potassium chloride is in widespread demand, it is not suitable for every kind of crop. Potassium sulphate (referred to as Sulphate of Potash or SOP) is used in crops that are sensitive to chloride or fertiliser burn, like coffee, tobacco, pineapple, avocado and many other fruits, or where sulphur is deficient. “We found that the combination of salts that we had in the resource is highly favourable for the low cost production of potassium sulphate rather than potassium chloride,” he says. The bottom line is that potassium sulphate creates a premium potash fertiliser that sees a price premium in the market – and there are limited production centres globally. “We use a very simple liberation and flotation process, simply mixing the kainite with other salts: under ambient conditions you then get a conversion that takes it to potassium sulphate. We have validated this with our metallurgical test program.” This is something that cannot be done by most other producers, since it is rare to have the right combination of salts in a single resource – and where that does happen the salts are usually held in brine, which contains about a tonne of water that has to be evaporated to obtain around five kilogrammes of potassium.

Because the resource is so shallow, it can all be dug out and is immediately ready to enter the flotation circuit. This is another advantage Colluli has over kainite resources that occur deep underground. In those cases the only way to obtain it is solution mining, however kainite is difficult to dissolve and in these conditions requires either heat or a long period of saturation. Kainite represents approximately 60 percent of the Colluli resource with the remaining salts consisting of sylvinite and carnallitite which are commonly used for the production of potassium chloride.

On this basis Colluli embarked on a completely new development path. The potassium chloride path was abandoned in favour of the premium product, though it always has the option to make the former in the future. Since one of the key differences of the Colluli resource relative to operations producing potassium sulphate from brines, is that the salts exist in solid form and therefore do not require evaporation to produce the feed for the processing plant, this substantially reduces the overall footprint required, reduces land disturbance and environmental impact, reduces the amount of double handling of raw materials, and most importantly gives reliability of product delivery, as production rates are not significantly impacted by ambient conditions.

Salts from the Colluli resource will simply be mined, stockpiled to the allocated areas and fed directly to the processing plant. The change in approach has allowed the company to scale back its development plan radically, from $800 million to the anticipated region of $350 million. The operational costs and procurement strategy is being further refined, he says, to bring capital and operating costs down to a fundable level that mitigates the risks of safety in an emerging mining jurisdiction and balances capital outlay against resource risks, he adds.

The resource is 180 kilometres from the well-established port of Massawa, a town of around 30,000 inhabitants which has four working berths handling bulk and container traffic. Massawa is connected to the country’s second port via a 500 kilometre coastal highway that runs south from Massawa to Assab the second port. The Red Sea is one of the world’s busiest shipping routes. Colluli’s planned ship loading facility at Anfile Bay provides deepwater access suitable for loading up to Panamax size vessels. Massawa port itself is Eritrea’s primary import-export facility and will form a key part of the consumables supply chain for the Colluli operation. The port currently exports over 250,000 tonnes of copper concentrate from existing mining operations. Massawa also represents the local recruitment pool for Colluli. Employees will be bussed to the site.

The resource itself is extremely flat and free of vegetation. Roads will be improved as the project progresses, says Donaldson. Generators are being used for the exploration work, however on-site power generation will have to be built for the plant construction and operational phases. Though it is an arid region, water should not be a problem, he believes. “The resource is 120 metres below sea level, and most of the process water is in fact seawater that we will pipe from the coast under gravity.” Fresh water for drinking and other purposes will probably require the installation of a solar desalination plant at the site, he adds.

Apart from the potassium chloride potential already mentioned the resource contains 200 million tonnes of magnesium chloride and there are other by-products of the mine that could be sold. Chief among these is a large quantity of high quality rock salt and plenty of gypsum. “We think these are marketable products because of our proximity to the coast and the low logistics cost of bringing them to market.”

The partnership with a government ministry does a lot to take the risk out of the project, as it ensures full cooperation with permitting, access to the port and highway authorities and the many other official agencies that are involved. That is a factor in getting Colluli products to world markets with as little delay as possible. A pre-feasibility study (PFS) was initiated in May 2014 for the production of potassium sulphate from the various potassium bearing salts in the resource, and this is expected to be completed in early 2015, with the final definitive feasibility study (DFS) completed in the second half of 2015. Environmental studies supporting the project are well advanced. Eight baseline assessments were submitted to the Eritrean Ministry of Energy and Mines in August of this year as part of a three stage submission process to ensure sufficient time is allowed to address any concerns – though none are anticipated. “As soon as the PFS is finished we will start the process of obtaining funding and getting our mining licence established so we can get into production as fast as possible,” concludes Paul Donaldson. “As far as we are concerned, keeping up momentum on the upfront work is critical and as soon as the definitive study is finished we will commence the design engineering of the processing plant – probably towards the third quarter of 2015 – so that when we secure funding we can go into construction as fast as possible.”


application/pdf iconSouthBoulder-APAC-Mining-Nov14-Bro-s.pdf

SouthBoulder-APAC-Mining-Nov14-Bro-s.pdf 442.42 KB

Related Terms: Mining and Exploration Africa BHP Billiton CEO chief operating officer entrepreneur Eritrea food India Liam Cornelius mining Mining Business Showcase Paul Donaldson potassium chloride The port Australia and NZ Business Showcase

ዓሰርተ መነኮሳት ገዳማት ኤርትራ ናብ ኢትዮጵያ ሰጊሮም

ዓሰርተ መነኮሳት ገዳማት ኤርትራ ኣብዚ ዝሓለፈ ሰሙናት ናብ ኢትዮጵያ ከምዝሰገሩ ዝረኸብናዮ ሓበሬታ የረድእ። ነቲ ብመራሕቲ ገዳማት ኤርትራ ኣብ ልዕሊ ኣቶ ዮፍታሄ ድሜጥሮስን ጸሓፊኡን ዝተወሰነ ውግዘት፥ ንስኻትኩም ኢኹም ኣለዓዒልኩሞ ብዝብል ምኽንያት መንግስቲ ኤርትራ ንኽኣስሮም ይደናደን ከምዘሎ ምስ ኣረጋገጹ ናብ ኢትዮጵያ ክስደዱ ከምዝተገደዱ ገሊጾም። እቶም ዓሰርተ መነኮሳት ገዳማት ኤርትራ ፥ ካብዘን ዝሰዕባ አድባራት ዝተሰዱ እዮም።

ሰለስተ መነኮሳት ካብ ገዳም ጻዕዳ እምባ

ሰለስተ መነኮሳት ካብ ገዳም ኣቡነ ሊባኖስ ሃም

ክልተ መነኮሳት ካብ ገዳም ኣቡነ ኣብራንዮስ

ሓደ መነኮስ ካብ ገዳም ኣቡነ ቡሩኽ

ሓደ መነኮስ ካብ ገዳም ኣቡነ ዮናስ ቆሓይን እዮም።
1.ገዳም ጻዕዳ እምባ ንከተማ ከረን ሓሊፍካ ቍልቍል ጥንቁልሓስ ምስ ወዳእካ ኣብቲ ሰንሰለታዊ ጎቦታት ደቡባዊ ምዕራብ ይርከብ
2.ገዳም ኣቡነ ሊባኖስ ሃም ካብ ከተማ ኣስመራ ብወገን ደቡብ ብገምጋም ኣስታት 160 ኪ.ሜ ኣቢሉ ኮይኑ፡ ኣብ ዞባ ደቡብ ከባቢ ን/ዞባ ሰንዓፈ፡ ካብ ሰርሓ ንወገን ምዕራብ ተደኲኑ ይርከብ።
3.ደብረ ጥሉል ተባሂሉ ዝጽዋዕ ገዳም ኣቡነ ኣብራንዮስ ኣብ ኣውራጃ ሰራየ፣ ንኡስ ኣውራጃ መንደፈራ ወረዳ ደቂ-ኣድግና ዝተደኰነ፣ ካብ ተራ-እምኒ ከባቢ 15 ኪሎ ሜትር ርሒቁ ብሸነኽ ደቡባዊ ምብራቕ ይርከብ።
4.ገዳም ኣቡነ ቡሩኽ ካብ ኣስመራ ብሸነክ ደቡብ ኣቢሉ ካብ መንደፈራ ንኩዶ ኣብዑር ምስ ተጓዓዝካ ናይ ቁሩብ ሰዓታት ናይ እግሪ መንገዲ ዘለዎ ጥንታዊ ገዳም እዩ
5.ገዳም ኣቡነ ዮናስ ቆሓይን ዝርከበሉ ቦታ ኣብ ኣውራጃ ሰራየ ንኡስ ኣውራጃ ዓዲ-ዃላ ቆሓይን እዩ። ኣብ መበል 15 ክፍለ ዘመን ድማ ተደኲኑ።

ምስ ገዳማት ኤርትራ ንምልላይ ኣብዚ መላግቦ’ዚ ተውከስ
Saturday, 01 November 2014 12:44

Red Sea Oil & Gas 2015 Summit

The Red Sea Oil & Gas 2015 Summit, taking place in Dubai, will be a high profile meeting providing exclusive industry insights into the investment, exploration, production and infrastructure landscape in the Red Sea including Egypt, Sudan, Eritrea, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, and Jordan.

The Red Sea Basin has proven to be rich in hydrocarbons and represents a major transit point between Asia, Europe and Africa. The prospect of multiple offshore fields combined with the development of major onshore processing hubs is attracting more and more international companies looking for opportunities on the Red Sea region. The province encompasses the Red Sea, Gulf of Suez, Gulf of Aqaba, and adjacent coastal areas, a total area of about 486,000 very promising square kilometres.

Under the guidance of a strong advisory committee, composed by Governmental officials, senior level executives from international and national oil companies along with experienced academics, the Red Sea Oil & Gas 2015 Summit will address questions, the geological landscape onshore and offshore the region, upcoming projects, latest strategies and regulations of a highly promising land. This platform of discussion and exchange will allow you to better understand how to get involved in this oil-rich region.

The IRN Oil & Gas portfolio has established an excellent international reputation and we pride ourselves on delivering the most up-to-date information. Moreover, our 5* setting will provide the perfect platform to network with the executive representatives, as well as top contractors and major companies from the oil and gas industry.